CYT-6.30.2015-10Q
Table of Contents

 
UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
WASHINGTON, D.C. 20549
____________________________________________
Form 10-Q
____________________________________________
QUARTERLY REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF
THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the quarterly period ended June 30, 2015
Commission file number 1-12372
____________________________________________
CYTEC INDUSTRIES INC.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
____________________________________________
Delaware
 
22-3268660
(State or other jurisdiction of
incorporation or organization)
 
(I.R.S. Employer
Identification No.)
 
 
Five Garret Mountain Plaza
Woodland Park, New Jersey
 
07424
(Address of principal executive offices)
 
(Zip Code)
Registrant’s telephone number, including area code (973) 357-3100
____________________________________________
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports) and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.    Yes  ý    No  ¨
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically and posted on its corporate Website, if any, every Interactive Data File required to be submitted and posted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit and post such files).    Yes  ý    No  ¨
Indicate by check mark whether the Registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, or a small reporting company. See definition of “accelerated filer, large accelerated filer, and smaller reporting company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act. (Check one):
Large accelerated filer
ý
Accelerated filer
¨
 
 
 
 
Non-accelerated filer
¨
Small reporting company
¨
Indicate by check mark whether the Registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).    Yes  ¨    No  ý
There were 71,456,656 shares of common stock outstanding at July 13, 2015.
 


Table of Contents

CYTEC INDUSTRIES INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
10-Q Table of Contents

 
 
Page
 
Item 1.
 
 
 
 
Item 2.
Item 3.
Item 4.
 
 
 
 
 
 
Item 1.
Item 6.
 
 


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Table of Contents

PART I – FINANCIAL INFORMATION

Item 1. CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
CYTEC INDUSTRIES INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF INCOME
(Unaudited)
(Dollars in millions, except per share amounts)
 
Three Months Ended 
 June 30,
 
Six Months Ended 
 June 30,
 
2015
 
2014
 
2015
 
2014
Net sales
$
508.2

 
$
527.1

 
$
1,023.2

 
$
1,016.2

Manufacturing cost of sales
342.7

 
347.1

 
713.7

 
676.2

Selling and technical services
36.2

 
37.5

 
71.5

 
74.3

Research and process development
12.0

 
12.4

 
24.4

 
25.2

Administrative and general
28.3

 
32.9

 
60.5

 
62.3

Amortization of acquisition intangibles
3.5

 
3.7

 
6.9

 
7.3

Earnings from operations
85.5

 
93.5

 
146.2

 
170.9

Other expense, net
1.8

 

 
1.5

 
0.5

Interest expense, net
3.9

 
3.0

 
7.6

 
6.2

Earnings from continuing operations before income taxes
79.8

 
90.5

 
137.1

 
164.2

Income tax provision
23.6

 
28.0

 
38.4

 
45.8

Earnings from continuing operations
56.2

 
62.5

 
98.7

 
118.4

Net (loss) gain on sale of discontinued operations, net of tax
(1.5
)
 
11.1

 
(1.5
)
 
11.1

(Loss) earnings from discontinued operations, net of tax
(1.5
)
 
11.1

 
(1.5
)
 
11.1

Net earnings
$
54.7

 
$
73.6

 
$
97.2

 
$
129.5

Comprehensive income
$
72.8

 
$
82.4

 
$
58.8

 
$
132.0

Earnings (loss) per share:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Basic earnings (loss) per common share:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Continuing operations
$
0.78

 
$
0.86

 
$
1.37

 
$
1.64

Discontinued operations
(0.02
)
 
0.16

 
(0.02
)
 
0.16

 
$
0.76

 
$
1.02

 
$
1.35

 
$
1.80

Diluted earnings (loss) per common share:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Continuing operations
$
0.77

 
$
0.85

 
$
1.35

 
$
1.61

Discontinued operations
(0.02
)
 
0.15

 
(0.02
)
 
0.15

 
$
0.75

 
$
1.00

 
$
1.33

 
$
1.76

Dividends per common share
$
0.125

 
$
0.063

 
$
0.25

 
$
0.125

See accompanying Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements

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CYTEC INDUSTRIES INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
CONSOLIDATED BALANCE SHEETS
(Unaudited)
(Dollars in millions, except per share amounts)
 
June 30,
2015
 
December 31,
2014
Assets
 
 
 
Current assets
 
 
 
Cash and cash equivalents
$
123.2

 
$
133.9

Trade accounts receivable, less allowance for doubtful accounts of $3.6 and $3.8 at June 30, 2015 and December 31, 2014, respectively
292.8

 
265.1

Other accounts receivable
74.4

 
74.6

Inventories
297.5

 
307.6

Deferred income taxes
34.1

 
27.4

Other current assets
31.5

 
26.2

Total current assets
853.5

 
834.8

Plants, equipment and facilities, at cost
1,694.5

 
1,680.8

Less: accumulated depreciation
(581.2
)
 
(559.4
)
Net plant investment
1,113.3

 
1,121.4

Acquisition intangibles, net of accumulated amortization of $77.5 and $70.8 at June 30, 2015 and December 31, 2014, respectively
134.2

 
141.6

Goodwill
507.3

 
508.8

Deferred income taxes
35.0

 
41.2

Other assets
133.1

 
119.4

Total assets
$
2,776.4

 
$
2,767.2

Liabilities
 
 
 
Current liabilities
 
 
 
Accounts payable
$
166.5

 
$
172.4

Current maturities of long-term debt
1.5

 
1.2

Accrued expenses
156.4

 
184.6

Income taxes payable
8.3

 
8.4

Deferred income taxes
0.4

 
0.3

Total current liabilities
333.1

 
366.9

Long-term debt
740.3

 
741.7

Pension and other postretirement benefit liabilities
235.2

 
245.9

Other noncurrent liabilities
166.1

 
170.3

Deferred income taxes
32.5

 
31.4

Stockholders’ equity
 
 
 
Preferred stock, 20,000,000 shares authorized; none issued and outstanding

 

Common stock, $.01 par value per share, 150,000,000 shares authorized; issued 99,805,710 at June 30, 2015 and 99,772,436 at December 31, 2014
1.0

 
1.0

Additional paid-in capital
477.8

 
474.2

Retained earnings
1,778.9

 
1,699.6

Accumulated other comprehensive (loss) income
(25.3
)
 
13.1

Treasury stock, at cost, 28,355,537 shares at June 30, 2015 and 28,732,931 shares at December 31, 2014
(963.2
)
 
(976.9
)
Total stockholders’ equity
1,269.2

 
1,211.0

Total liabilities and stockholders’ equity
$
2,776.4

 
$
2,767.2

See accompanying Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements

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CYTEC INDUSTRIES INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF CASH FLOWS
(Unaudited)
(Dollars in millions)
 
Six Months Ended June 30,
 
2015
 
2014
Cash flows provided by (used in) operating activities
 
 
 
Net earnings
$
97.2

 
$
129.5

(Loss) earnings from discontinued operations, net of tax
(1.5
)
 
11.1

Net earnings from continuing operations
98.7

 
118.4

Adjustments to reconcile net income to net cash provided by operating activities of continuing operations:
 
 
 
Depreciation
35.3

 
30.5

Amortization
8.7

 
9.0

Share-based compensation
6.6

 
6.3

Deferred income taxes
3.0

 
11.2

Pension and postretirement benefit (income) expense
(1.5
)
 
0.5

Contributions to pension and postretirement plans
(7.3
)
 
(6.1
)
Non-cash loss on disposal of assets
0.9

 
1.8

Unrealized (gain) loss on foreign currency forward contracts
(3.5
)
 
1.3

Changes in operating assets and liabilities:
 
 
 
Trade accounts receivable
(41.3
)
 
(41.0
)
Other receivables
3.0

 
(0.6
)
Inventories
5.0

 
(36.5
)
Other assets
(4.2
)
 
1.8

Accounts payable
2.8

 
40.8

Accrued expenses
(27.5
)
 
(14.3
)
Income taxes payable
(8.1
)
 
(9.5
)
Other liabilities
(0.1
)
 
(8.6
)
Net cash provided by operating activities of continuing operations
70.5

 
105.0

Net cash (used in) provided by operating activities of discontinued operations
(1.7
)
 
0.3

Net cash provided by operating activities
68.8

 
105.3

Cash flows used in investing activities:
 
 
 
Additions to plants, equipment and facilities
(64.3
)
 
(121.6
)
Other investing activities, net

 
(0.1
)
Net cash used in investing activities
(64.3
)
 
(121.7
)
Cash flows provided by (used in) financing activities:
 
 
 
Proceeds from long-term debt

 
0.3

Payments on long-term debt
(0.6
)
 
(0.3
)
Cash dividends
(17.8
)
 
(8.9
)
Proceeds from the exercise of stock options
7.7

 
9.9

Excess tax benefits from share-based payment arrangements
2.7

 
4.4

Net cash (used in) provided by financing activities
(8.0
)
 
5.4

Effect of currency rate changes on cash and cash equivalents
(7.2
)
 
(0.6
)
Decrease in cash and cash equivalents
(10.7
)
 
(11.6
)
Cash and cash equivalents, beginning of period
133.9

 
151.8

Cash and cash equivalents, end of period
$
123.2

 
$
140.2

See accompanying Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements

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CYTEC INDUSTRIES INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
NOTES TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
(Unaudited)
(Currencies in millions, except per share amounts, unless otherwise indicated)

1. BASIS OF PRESENTATION
The accompanying unaudited consolidated financial statements included herein have been prepared pursuant to the rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”) for reporting on Form 10-Q and accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America (“U.S. GAAP”) for interim reporting. Certain information and footnote disclosures normally included in our annual consolidated financial statements have been condensed or omitted pursuant to such rules and regulations.
Financial statements prepared in accordance with U.S. GAAP require management to make certain estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities, revenues and expenses, and other disclosures. In the opinion of management, these condensed consolidated financial statements include all normal and recurring adjustments necessary for a fair presentation of the financial position and the results of our operations and cash flows for the interim periods presented.
The results of operations for any interim period are not necessarily indicative of the results of operations for the full year. These condensed consolidated financial statements should be read in conjunction with the Consolidated Financial Statements and Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements contained in the Company’s 2014 Annual Report on Form 10-K. Unless indicated otherwise, the terms “Company,” “Cytec,” “we,” “us,” and “our” each refer collectively to Cytec Industries Inc. and its subsidiaries.
Except for the number of authorized shares and par value, all references to shares and per share data for all periods presented herein reflect the impact of the 2-for-1 stock split in the form of a stock dividend which was effective in September 2014, as discussed in Note 17 of our 2014 Form 10-K.
Reclassifications
Certain amounts reported for prior years in the unaudited consolidated financial statements and accompanying notes have been reclassified to conform to the current year’s presentation.

2. NEW ACCOUNTING PRONOUNCEMENTS
In April 2015, the Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”) issued Accounting Standards Update (“ASU”) No. 2015-05, “Intangibles – Goodwill and Other – Internal-Use Software (Subtopic 350-40): Customer’s Accounting for Fees Paid in a Cloud Computing Arrangement.” The guidance provides clarification on whether a cloud computing arrangement includes a software license. If a software license is included, the customer should account for the license consistent with its accounting of other software licenses. If a software license is not included, the arrangement should be accounted for as a service contract. The update is effective for reporting periods beginning after December 15, 2015 and for interim periods within those fiscal years, with early adoption permitted. Entities have the option of applying either a full retrospective approach to all periods presented or a prospective approach to all arrangements entered into or materially modified after the effective date. We are currently evaluating the effect that this pronouncement will have on our consolidated financial statements and related disclosures.
In April 2015, the FASB issued ASU No. 2015-03, “Interest – Imputation of Interest (Subtopic 835-30): Simplifying the Presentation of Debt Issuance Costs.” This ASU will require the presentation of debt issuance costs in financial statements as a direct reduction of related debt liabilities with amortization of debt issuance costs reported as interest expense. Under current U.S. GAAP standards, debt issuance costs are reported as deferred charges (i.e., as assets). ASU 2015-03 is effective for annual periods, and interim periods within those fiscal years, beginning after December 15, 2015 and is to be applied retrospectively upon adoption. Early adoption is permitted, including adoption in an interim period for financial statements that have not been previously issued. We are currently evaluating the effect that this pronouncement will have on our consolidated financial statements and related disclosures.
In February 2015, the FASB issued ASU No. 2015-02, “Consolidation (Topic 810): Amendments to the Consolidation Analysis.” This guidance focuses on a reporting company’s consolidation evaluation to determine whether they should consolidate certain legal entities. This guidance is effective for annual periods beginning after December 15, 2015. Early adoption is permitted, including adoption in an interim period. We are currently evaluating the effect that this pronouncement will have on our consolidated financial statements, but do not anticipate it will be material.

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In May 2014, the FASB issued ASU No. 2014-09, “Revenue from Contracts with Customers (Topic 606),” which will supersede current revenue recognition guidance in Accounting Standards Codification Topic 605, “Revenue Recognition.” The new standard is based on the principle that revenue is recognized to depict the transfer of goods or services to customers in an amount that reflects the consideration to which the entity expects to be entitled in exchange for those goods or services. The new standard will also result in enhanced disclosures about revenue, provide guidance for transactions that were not previously addressed comprehensively, and clarify guidance for multiple-element arrangements. In July 2015, the FASB voted to delay the effective date of the standard by one year to the first quarter of 2018 to provide companies sufficient time to implement the standard. Early adoption will be permitted, but not before the first quarter of 2017. Adoption can occur using one of two prescribed transition methods. We have not yet selected a transition method and continue to evaluate the impact this guidance, as well as amendments to the guidance that have been proposed by the FASB, will have on our future consolidated financial statements and related disclosures.

3. DISCONTINUED OPERATIONS AND OTHER DIVESTITURES
The following tables display summarized activity in our consolidated statements of income for discontinued operations during the three and six months ended June 30, 2015 and 2014 related to our former Coating Resins (“Coatings”) business and other divestitures.
 
Three Months Ended June 30,
 
2015
 
2014
 
Coatings
 
Total
 
Coatings
 
Total
(Loss) gain on sale of discontinued operations
$
(2.3
)
 
$
(2.3
)
 
$
0.5

 
$
0.5

Income tax benefit on (loss) gain on sale
0.8

 
0.8

 
10.6

 
10.6

(Loss) earnings from discontinued operations, net of tax
$
(1.5
)
 
$
(1.5
)
 
$
11.1

 
$
11.1

 
Six Months Ended June 30,
 
2015
 
2014
 
Coatings
 
Total
 
Coatings
 
Pre-
Acquisition
Umeco
 
Total
(Loss) gain on sale of discontinued operations
$
(2.3
)
 
$
(2.3
)
 
$
(3.6
)
 
$
3.6

 
$

Income tax benefit on (loss) gain on sale
0.8

 
0.8

 
11.1

 

 
11.1

(Loss) earnings from discontinued operations, net of tax
$
(1.5
)
 
$
(1.5
)
 
$
7.5

 
$
3.6

 
$
11.1

Discontinued operations
Coating Resins
On April 3, 2013, we completed the divestiture of our remaining Coatings business to Advent International (“Advent”), a global private equity firm. In connection with the sale of the business to Advent, we agreed to retain certain liabilities, including liabilities for U.S. pension and other postretirement benefits and certain tax liabilities related to taxable periods (or portions thereof) ending on or before April 3, 2013. For both the three and six months ended June 30, 2015, we recorded after-tax losses of $1.5 related to the sale of Coatings, of which $0.1 was for these tax liabilities and $1.4 of additional costs of exiting a former Coatings facility. During the three and six months ended June 30, 2014, we recorded after-tax benefits of $0.5 and charges of $1.3, respectively, related to certain of these tax liabilities. Additionally, in the three and six months ended June 30, 2014, we recorded tax benefits of $10.6 and $11.1, respectively, based on our best estimate of the purchase price allocation attributable to the Coatings business sold in various taxing jurisdictions. For the six months ended June 30, 2014, we also incurred after-tax charges of approximately $2.3 for purchase price and working capital adjustments related to the sale. These after-tax losses and gains are included in Net (loss) gain on sale of discontinued operations, net of tax in the consolidated statements of income. The final price paid and loss on sale remains subject to final working capital and other customary adjustments.
As of June 30, 2015, the final working capital adjustment on the Coatings divestiture transaction is in dispute. We believe we will recover the net amount we have recorded with respect to the final working capital adjustment.
Other divestitures
Former Umeco entities divested prior to our acquisition
As part of our acquisition accounting for Umeco in 2012, we established reserves related to income tax and value added tax liabilities of an entity that had been divested by Umeco in 2011, for periods that were under audit prior to it its divestiture. We

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continued to accrue interest through the end of 2013. In the first quarter of 2014, we agreed to a settlement for audit periods through March 31, 2009, which resulted in a benefit of approximately $3.6. The benefit is included in Net (loss) gain on sale of discontinued operations, net of tax in the consolidated statement of income for the six months ended June 30, 2014.

4. RESTRUCTURING OF OPERATIONS
In accordance with our accounting policy, restructuring costs are included in our Corporate and Unallocated operating results for segment reporting purposes, which is consistent with management’s view of its businesses. Aggregate pre-tax restructuring charges included in the consolidated statements of income were recorded by line item as follows:
 
Three Months Ended 
 June 30,
 
Six Months Ended 
 June 30,
 
2015
 
2014
 
2015
 
2014
Manufacturing cost of sales
$
0.3

 
$
0.1

 
$
1.4

 
$
0.3

Selling and technical services
0.1

 

 
0.4

 

Administrative and general
(0.3
)
 
0.2

 
1.9

 
0.1

Total
$
0.1

 
$
0.3

 
$
3.7

 
$
0.4

Details of our 2015 restructuring initiatives are as follows:
During the first quarter of 2015, we approved plans to realign the supporting structure of all our segments and across various functions to take advantage of synergies from the ongoing implementation of our single, global enterprise resource planning (“ERP”) system. These plans resulted in a restructuring charge of $3.5 for severance related to the elimination of approximately 55 positions. The initiative is expected to be completed by the end of 2016. During the second quarter of 2015, we recorded a favorable adjustment of $0.1 to the 2015 restructuring initiatives. The remaining reserve relating to the 2015 restructuring initiatives at June 30, 2015 is $1.9.
Updates to our 2013 restructuring initiatives are as follows:
During the first six months of 2015, we recorded a net adjustment of $0.3 to the 2013 restructuring initiatives. The remaining reserve relating to the 2013 restructuring initiatives at June 30, 2015 is $1.0.
Updates to our 2012 restructuring initiatives are as follows:
The remaining reserve relating to the 2012 restructuring initiatives at June 30, 2015 is $2.1.
Following are the changes in the restructuring reserve balance through the first six months of 2015:
Restructuring Initiatives:
 
2012

 
2013

 
2015

 
Total

Balance at December 31, 2013
 
$
4.8

 
$
1.8

 
$

 
$
6.6

2014 (credits) charges
 
(0.4
)
 
1.4

 

 
1.0

Non-cash items (1)
 

 
(0.5
)
 

 
(0.5
)
Cash payments
 
(1.2
)
 
(0.9
)
 

 
(2.1
)
Balance at December 31, 2014
 
$
3.2

 
$
1.8

 
$

 
$
5.0

First quarter charges
 
0.1

 

 
3.5

 
3.6

Non-cash items(1)
 

 
(0.1
)
 

 
(0.1
)
Cash payments
 
(0.9
)
 
(0.1
)
 
(1.0
)
 
(2.0
)
Balance at March 31, 2015
 
$
2.4

 
$
1.6

 
$
2.5

 
$
6.5

Second quarter (credits) charges
 
(0.1
)
 
0.3

 
(0.1
)
 
0.1

Non-cash items(1)
 

 
(0.3
)
 

 
(0.3
)
Cash payments
 
(0.2
)
 
(0.6
)
 
(0.5
)
 
(1.3
)
Balance at June 30, 2015
 
$
2.1

 
$
1.0

 
$
1.9

 
$
5.0

______________________
(1)
Includes accelerated depreciation of plant assets at our California sites.


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5. SHARE-BASED COMPENSATION
The fair value of each option or stock-settled share appreciation right (“SARS”) award is estimated on the grant date using a binomial-lattice option valuation model. Stock-settled SARS are economically valued the same as stock options. The binomial-lattice model takes into account variables such as volatility, dividend yield, and risk-free interest rate. In addition, the binomial-lattice model considers the contractual term of the option, the probability that the option will be exercised prior to the end of its contractual life, and the probability of termination or retirement of the option holder in computing the value of the option.
The weighted average assumptions for the six months ended June 30, 2015 and 2014 are noted in the following table:
 
Six Months Ended 
 June 30,
 
2015
 
2014
Expected life (years)
6.2

 
6.3

Expected volatility
30.4
%
 
34.6
%
Expected dividend yield
1.03
%
 
0.63
%
Risk-free interest rate
2.31
%
 
3.00
%
Weighted-average fair value per option
$
14.40

 
$
16.40

The expected life of options granted is derived from the output of the option valuation model and represents the period of time that options granted are expected to be outstanding. Expected volatilities are based on the combination of implied market volatility and our historical volatility. The risk-free rate for periods within the contractual life of the option is based on the U.S. Treasury yield curve in effect at the time of grant. As share-based compensation recognized in the consolidated statements of income is based on awards ultimately expected to vest, we incorporate the probability of pre-vesting forfeiture in determining the number of expected vested options. The forfeiture rate is based on the historical forfeiture experience and prospective actuarial analysis.
Stock Award and Incentive Plan
The 1993 Stock Award and Incentive Plan, as amended on September 17, 2014, (the “1993 Plan” or “Amended Plan”) provides for grants of a variety of awards, such as stock options (including incentive stock options and nonqualified stock options), nonvested stock (including performance stock), SARS (including those settled with common shares) and deferred stock awards and dividend equivalents.
At June 30, 2015, there were approximately 7,500,000 shares reserved for issuance under the 1993 Plan, inclusive of approximately 3,600,000 shares reserved for issuance for all outstanding share-based compensation grants.
Stock options and stock-settled SARS
We have utilized the stock option component of the 1993 Plan to provide for the granting of nonqualified stock options and stock-settled SARS with an exercise price at 100% of the market price on the date of the grant. Options and stock-settled SARS are generally exercisable in installments of one-third per year commencing one year after the grant date and annually thereafter, with contract lives of generally 10 years from the grant date.
A summary of stock options and stock-settled SARS activity for the six months ended June 30, 2015 is presented below:
Options and Stock-Settled SARS Activity:
Number of
Units
 
Weighted
Average
Exercise
Price Per
Unit
 
Weighted
Average
Remaining
Contractual
Life (Years)
 
Aggregate
Intrinsic
Value
Outstanding at January 1, 2015
2,996,794

 
$
28.84

 
 
 
 
Granted
565,408

 
44.69

 
 
 
 
Exercised
(366,079
)
 
26.44

 
 
 
 
Forfeited
(13,838
)
 
43.22

 
 
 
 
Outstanding at June 30, 2015
3,182,285

 
$
31.88

 
6.5
 
$
91.2

Exercisable at June 30, 2015
2,066,881

 
$
25.72

 
5.2
 
$
72.0

During the six months ended June 30, 2015, we granted 565,408 stock options. The weighted-average grant-date fair value of the stock options granted during the six months ended June 30, 2015 and 2014 was $14.40 and $16.40 per share, respectively.

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Total pre-tax compensation cost related to stock option and stock-settled SARS was $2.4 and $2.3 for the three months ended June 30, 2015 and 2014, respectively, and $4.4 and $4.3 during the six months ended June 30, 2015 and 2014, respectively. The total intrinsic value of stock options and stock-settled SARS exercised during the six months ended June 30, 2015 and 2014 was $9.2 and $23.4, respectively. Treasury shares and newly issued shares have been utilized for stock option and stock-settled SARS exercises.
As of June 30, 2015, there was $9.4 of total unrecognized compensation cost related to stock options and stock-settled SARS. That cost is expected to be recognized over a weighted-average period of 1.3 years as the majority of our awards vest over 3 years.
Total tax benefits realized from share-based awards was $4.5 and $7.8 for the six months ended June 30, 2015 and 2014, respectively. Cash received from stock options exercised was $7.7 and $9.9 for the six months ended June 30, 2015 and 2014, respectively.
Cash-settled SARS
Our 1993 Plan also provides for the granting of cash-settled SARS, which were granted during 2004 and 2005. Cash-settled SARS are liability-classified awards. Cash used to settle cash-settled SARS exercised during the six months ended June 30, 2015 and 2014 was $0.1 and $0.6, respectively. The total amount of pre-tax income recognized for cash-settled SARS was $0.1 for both the six months ended June 30, 2015 and 2014. The liability related to our cash-settled SARS was $0.2 at December 31, 2014. There were no cash-settled SARS outstanding as of June 30, 2015.
Nonvested stock, nonvested stock units, and performance stock
The 1993 Plan provides for the issuance of nonvested stock, nonvested stock units, and performance stock. Nonvested stock and nonvested stock units are subject to certain restrictions on ownership and transferability that lapse upon vesting. Performance stock payouts are based on the attainment of certain financial performance objectives and may vary depending on the degree to which the performance objectives are met. We did not grant any performance stock in 2015 and 2014, and there were no outstanding performance stock awards as of June 30, 2015.
A summary of nonvested stock and nonvested stock units for the six months ended June 30, 2015 is presented below:
Nonvested Stock and Nonvested Stock Units:
Number of
Units
 
Weighted 
Average
Grant Date
Fair Value
Per Unit
Nonvested at January 1, 2015
307,882

 
$
34.66

Granted
80,276

 
45.20

Vested
(118,492
)
 
25.71

Forfeited
(1,654
)
 
41.46

Nonvested at June 30, 2015
268,012

 
$
41.72

During the six months ended June 30, 2015, we granted 66,308 nonvested stock units to employees and 13,968 shares of nonvested stock to nine directors, which generally vest on the third anniversary of the grant date. The weighted-average fair value of the nonvested stock and nonvested stock units on the grant date was $45.20 per share. The total amount of share-based compensation expense recognized for nonvested stock and nonvested stock units was $1.0 and $0.9 for the three months ended June 30, 2015 and 2014, respectively, and $1.9 and $1.8 during the six months ended June 30, 2015 and 2014, respectively. As of June 30, 2015, there was $5.1 of total unrecognized compensation cost related to nonvested stock and nonvested stock units. That cost is expected to be recognized over a weighted-average period of 1.9 years.
Compensation cost related to all share-based compensation arrangements capitalized in inventory was approximately $0.6 and $0.5 as of June 30, 2015 and December 31, 2014, respectively.
At June 30, 2015 and December 31, 2014, our Additional paid-in capital pool (“APIC Pool”), which represents excess tax benefits available to absorb potential future tax deficiencies, was $92.3 and $89.6, respectively.


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6. EARNINGS PER SHARE (EPS)
Basic earnings per common share excludes dilution and is computed by dividing net earnings available to common stockholders by the weighted-average number of common shares outstanding (which includes shares outstanding, less performance and nonvested shares for which vesting criteria have not been met) plus deferred stock awards, weighted for the period outstanding. Diluted earnings per common share is computed by dividing net earnings available to common stockholders by the sum of the weighted-average number of common shares outstanding for the period adjusted (i.e., increased) for all additional common shares that would have been outstanding if potentially dilutive common shares had been issued and any proceeds of the issuance had been used to repurchase common stock at the average market price during the period. Under this method, an increase in the fair market value of the Company’s stock can result in a greater dilutive effect from potentially dilutive common shares. The proceeds are assumed to be the sum of the amount to be paid to the Company upon exercise of options, the amount of compensation cost attributed to future services and not yet recognized, and the amount of income taxes that would be credited to or deducted from capital upon exercise.
The following table sets forth the computation of basic and diluted earnings per common share for the three and six months ended June 30, 2015 and 2014 (in thousands, except net earnings in millions and per share amounts):
 
Three Months Ended 
 June 30,
 
Six Months Ended 
 June 30,
 
2015
 
2014
 
2015
 
2014
Numerator:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Earnings from continuing operations
$
56.2

 
$
62.5

 
$
98.7

 
$
118.4

(Loss) earnings from discontinued operations, net of tax
(1.5
)
 
11.1

 
(1.5
)
 
11.1

Net earnings
$
54.7

 
$
73.6

 
$
97.2

 
$
129.5

Denominator:
 
 
 
 

 
 
Weighted average shares outstanding
72,012

 
72,306

 
71,898

 
72,100

Effect of dilutive shares:
 
 
 
 

 
 
Options and stock-settled SARS
980

 
1,017

 
939

 
1,095

Nonvested shares and units
152

 
210

 
160

 
220

Diluted average shares outstanding
73,144

 
73,533

 
72,997

 
73,415

Basic earnings (loss) per common share:
 
 
 
 

 
 
Earnings from continuing operations
$
0.78

 
$
0.86

 
$
1.37

 
$
1.64

(Loss) earnings from discontinued operations
(0.02
)
 
0.16

 
(0.02
)
 
0.16

Net earnings per common share
$
0.76

 
$
1.02

 
$
1.35

 
$
1.80

Diluted earnings (loss) per common share:
 
 
 
 

 
 
Earnings from continuing operations
$
0.77

 
$
0.85

 
$
1.35

 
$
1.61

(Loss) earnings from discontinued operations
(0.02
)
 
0.15

 
(0.02
)
 
0.15

Net earnings per common share
$
0.75

 
$
1.00

 
$
1.33

 
$
1.76

The following table sets forth the anti-dilutive shares/units excluded from the above calculation because their inclusion would have had an anti-dilutive effect on earnings per share (in thousands):
 
Six Months Ended 
 June 30,
 
2015
 
2014
Options
337

 
457

Stock-settled SARS

 

Nonvested shares and units

 

Total
337

 
457



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7. INVENTORIES
Inventories consisted of the following:
 
June 30, 2015
 
December 31, 2014
Finished goods
$
189.1

 
$
204.1

Work in progress
15.0

 
10.8

Raw materials and supplies
93.4

 
92.7

Total inventories
$
297.5

 
$
307.6


8. DEBT
Long-term debt, including the current portion, consisted of the following: 
 
June 30, 2015
 
December 31, 2014
 
Face
 
Carrying
Value
 
Face
 
Carrying
Value
Five-year revolving credit line due June 2019
$

 
$

 
$

 
$

8.95% notes due July 1, 2017
82.3

 
82.2

 
82.3

 
82.2

3.5% notes due April 1, 2023
400.0

 
397.8

 
400.0

 
397.7

3.95% notes due May 1, 2025
250.0

 
249.9

 
250.0

 
249.9

Other
15.6

 
11.9

 
17.4

 
13.1

Total debt
$
747.9

 
$
741.8

 
$
749.7

 
$
742.9

Less: current maturities
(1.5
)
 
(1.5
)
 
(1.4
)
 
(1.2
)
Long-term debt
$
746.4

 
$
740.3

 
$
748.3

 
$
741.7

All of the outstanding notes are unsecured and may be repaid in whole or in part, at our option at any time subject to a prepayment adjustment.
Debt issuances and repurchases
On November 12, 2014, we issued $250.0 aggregate principal amount of 3.95% senior unsecured notes due May 1, 2025 (“3.95% notes”), which resulted in $248.3 in net proceeds after original issue discount and underwriting fees. In addition, on November 5, 2014, we commenced offers to purchase our 6.0% notes due October 1, 2015 (“6.0% notes”) and a portion of our 8.95% notes due July 1, 2017 (“8.95% notes”). In November 2014, we applied the net proceeds from the issuance of the 3.95% notes to repurchase $17.8 principal amount of our 6.0% notes for a purchase price of $18.7 plus accrued interest of $0.1. In December 2014, we applied the balance of the net proceeds as follows: (1) to repurchase $124.0 principal amount of our 6.0% notes for a purchase price of $129.6 plus accrued interest of $1.3; and (2) to repurchase $82.0 principal amount of our 8.95% notes for a purchase price of $97.8 plus accrued interest of $3.1. The repurchase of the 6.0% and 8.95% notes resulted in a loss of $22.7 in 2014, including transaction costs.
Revolving Credit Facility
At June 30, 2015, there were no borrowings outstanding under the Revolving Credit Facility (the “Facility”), and $400.0 was available for borrowing under the Facility. We are required to comply with certain customary financial covenants under the Revolving Credit Facility: (i) the ratio of consolidated total debt to consolidated earnings before interest, taxes, depreciation and amortization (“EBITDA”); and (ii) the ratio of consolidated EBITDA to consolidated interest expense. We are in compliance with these covenants and expect to be in compliance for the foreseeable future.
Fair value
At June 30, 2015 and December 31, 2014, the fair value of our debt was $735.2 and $761.5, respectively. The fair value of our debt is based on Level 2 inputs, as defined in Note 15. These inputs include a discounted cash flow analysis, which incorporates the contractual terms of the notes and observable market-based inputs that include time value, interest rate curves, and credit spreads.

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Interest
The weighted-average interest rate on all of our debt was 4.36% and 5.33% as of June 30, 2015 and 2014, respectively. We had no short-term borrowings outstanding at June 30, 2015 and December 31, 2014.

9. ENVIRONMENTAL, CONTINGENCIES AND COMMITMENTS
Environmental Matters
We are subject to substantial costs arising out of environmental laws and regulations, which include obligations to remove or limit the effects on the environment of the disposal or release of certain wastes or substances at various sites or to pay compensation to others for doing so.
As of June 30, 2015 and December 31, 2014, the aggregate environmental related accruals were $59.6 and $59.5, respectively, of which $9.5 was included in accrued expenses for both periods, with the remainder of $50.1 and $50.0 included in other noncurrent liabilities as of June 30, 2015 and December 31, 2014, respectively. Environmental remediation spending for the three months ended June 30, 2015 and 2014 was $1.1 and $1.3, respectively, and $2.4 and $2.2 for the six months ended June 30, 2015 and 2014, respectively.
We review our environmental remediation accruals quarterly, and adjust our environmental related accruals as needed based on new information. During the six months ended June 30, 2015, our adjustments resulted in a net increase of $3.1 in our environmental related accruals, consisting of an increase of $1.3 related primarily to an inactive U.S. site, for a detailed alternative analysis and feasibility study as required by the EPA as well as future remedial activities, and an increase of $1.8 related to several other sites.
Our environmental related accruals can change substantially due to such factors as additional information on the nature or extent of contamination, methods of remediation required, changes in the apportionment of costs among responsible parties, and other actions by governmental agencies or private parties, or if we are named in a new matter and determine that an accrual needs to be provided, or if we determine that we are not liable and no longer require an accrual.
Piles Creek
We were notified by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (“NOAA”), a federal natural resource trustee, that, after an environmental assessment, we are one of six parties potentially responsible for damages to natural resources in Piles Creek, a tidal influenced tributary partially running through an industrial area in Linden, New Jersey. A portion of Piles Creek runs adjacent to the Company’s previously closed landfill in Linden, New Jersey. NOAA further advised that it seeks compensation from the six potentially responsible parties in the form of restoring other tidal wetlands. Thus far, no legal action has been taken by NOAA and the Company is investigating its contribution, if any, to this matter. Accordingly, no loss contingency has been recorded.
A further discussion of environmental matters can be found in Note 12 of Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements contained in our 2014 Annual Report on Form 10-K.
Other Contingencies
We are the subject of numerous lawsuits and claims incidental to the conduct of our or certain of our predecessors’ businesses, including lawsuits and claims relating to product liability and personal injury, including asbestos, environmental, contractual, employment and intellectual property matters.
As of June 30, 2015 and December 31, 2014, the aggregate self-insured and insured contingent liability was $45.1 and $45.9, respectively, and the related insurance recovery receivable for the liability as well as claims for past payments was $19.2 and $19.7, respectively. The asbestos liability included in the above amounts at June 30, 2015 and December 31, 2014 was $34.8 and $36.5, respectively, and the insurance receivable related to the liability as well as claims for past payments was $18.9 and $19.3, respectively. We anticipate receiving a net tax benefit for payment of those claims for which full insurance recovery is not realized.

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Asbestos
We, like many other industrial companies, have been named as one of hundreds of defendants in a number of lawsuits filed in the U.S. by persons alleging bodily injury from asbestos. The claimants allege exposure to asbestos at facilities that we own or formerly owned, or from products that we formerly manufactured for specialized applications. Most of these cases involve numerous defendants, sometimes as many as several hundred. Historically, most of the closed asbestos claims against us have been dismissed without any indemnity payment by us; however, we can make no assurances that this pattern will continue.
The following table presents information about the number of claimants involved in asbestos claims with us:
 
Six Months Ended June 30, 2015
 
Year Ended December 31, 2014
Number of claimants at beginning of period
5,200

 
8,100

Number of claimants associated with claims closed during period
(100
)
 
(3,000
)
Number of claimants associated with claims opened during period
100

 
100

Number of claimants at end of period
5,200

 
5,200

Numbers in the foregoing table are rounded to the nearest hundred and are based on information as received by us, which may lag actual court filing dates by several months or more. Claims are recorded as closed when a claimant is dismissed or severed from a case. Claims are opened whenever a new claim is brought, including from a claimant previously dismissed or severed from another case. In 2014, by virtue of a new Texas law, which amended the Texas Civil Code, the Texas courts commenced dismissing dormant asbestos cases without prejudice to re-filing by plaintiffs. In the fourth quarter of 2014, the Texas courts dismissed almost 3,000 claimants with claims against us. We expect additional dismissals in 2015.
Our asbestos related contingent liabilities and related insurance receivables are based on an actuarial study performed by a third party, which is updated every three years. During the third quarter of 2012, we completed an actuarial study of our asbestos related contingent liabilities and related insurance receivables, which will be updated again in the third quarter of 2015. The study is based on, among other things, the incidence and nature of historical claims data through June 30, 2012, the incidence of malignancy claims, the severity of indemnity payments for malignancy and non-malignancy claims, dismissal rates by claim type, estimated future claim frequency, settlement values and reserves, and expected average insurance recovery rates by claim type. The study assumes liabilities through 2049. Overall, we expect to recover approximately 48% of our future indemnity costs. We have completed Coverage-In-Place-Agreements with most of our larger insurance carriers.
The ultimate liability and related insurance recovery for all pending and anticipated future claims cannot be determined with certainty due to the difficulty of forecasting the numerous variables that can affect the amount of the liability and insurance recovery. These variables include but are not limited to: (i) significant changes in the number of future claims; (ii) significant changes in the average cost of resolving claims; (iii) changes in the nature of claims received; (iv) changes in the laws applicable to these claims; and (v) financial viability of co-defendants and insurers.
Lead Pigment
Over the past 20 years we have been named as defendants in more than fifty cases in the U.S. in which plaintiffs assert claims for personal injury, property damage, and other claims for relief relating to one or more kinds of lead pigment that were used as an ingredient decades ago in architectural paint. Eight lead ingestion personal injury cases remain outstanding. The different suits were brought by government entities and/or individual plaintiffs, on behalf of themselves and others. The suits variously sought compensatory and punitive damages and/or injunctive relief, including funds for the cost of monitoring, detecting and removing lead based paint from buildings and for medical monitoring; for personal injuries allegedly caused by ingestion of lead based paint; and plaintiffs’ attorneys’ fees. We settled one of these cases in 2005 for an immaterial amount in order to avoid litigation costs. In all of the others, we prevailed in court or were dismissed as a defendant.
We currently are one of several defendants in eight personal injury lead ingestion cases, consisting of 172 plaintiffs venued in federal and state courts in Milwaukee, Wisconsin. One of the eight cases, which is venued in Federal District Court in Milwaukee, consists of 164 claimants, each alleging personal injury as a result of the ingestion of white lead carbonate in paint. The remaining seven cases consist of less than 10 total plaintiffs. We believe that the eight personal injury cases against us are without merit.
In July 2005, in a case in which we were one of several defendants, the Supreme Court of Wisconsin held that Wisconsin’s risk contribution doctrine applies to bodily injury cases against manufacturers of white lead pigment. Under this doctrine, manufacturers of white lead pigment may be liable for injuries caused by white lead pigment based on their past market shares, unless they can prove they are not responsible for the white lead pigment which caused the injury in question. Seven of the

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eight personal injury cases, including the personal injury case consisting of 164 plaintiffs, were filed before January 2011, when the Wisconsin legislature passed legislation that will make it substantially more difficult to bring lead suits in the future, including a 25 year statute of repose. In June 2013, the Governor of Wisconsin signed into law the biennial budget, which contained within it a provision that retroactively applies the 2011 law to all claims of lead poisoning whether filed or accrued.
The defendants, including the Company, moved to dismiss the personal injury lead cases pending in Wisconsin state court pursuant to the new law. By a decision dated March 2014 in the Wisconsin state court case styled Clark et al. v. American Cyanamid Company et al., the court denied the defendants motion holding unconstitutional the retroactive application of the new law. The defendants, including the Company, petitioned for leave to appeal the trial court’s decision. The petition for leave was granted by the Wisconsin Appellate Division.
Also, in 2010, the United States District Court for the Eastern District of Wisconsin held that the risk contribution theory imposed by the Wisconsin Supreme Court for lead pigment violates the due process clause set forth in the 14th Amendment to the United States Constitution. The Court’s decision was appealed to the United States Circuit Court of Appeals for the Seventh Circuit. The Seventh Circuit Court of Appeals also requested that the parties brief the constitutionality of the new retroactivity provision in the biennial budget. In the third quarter of 2014, the United States Court of Appeals for the Seventh Circuit reversed the trial court’s dismissal and held that the risk contribution theory imposed by the Wisconsin Supreme Court for lead pigment is permissible under the United States Constitution. The Court also held that the retroactivity provision of Wis. State 845.046 is unconstitutional as it effects a vested right. Some defendants, including the Company, have petitioned the United States Supreme Court for review of the Seventh Circuit’s decision. As a result of the Seventh Circuit’s decision, the lead ingestion cases venued in the United States District Court of Wisconsin will proceed. The defendants, including the Company, have moved to dismiss the federal cases for lack of personal jurisdiction.
Finally, in July 2009, the Wisconsin Supreme Court, in the case styled Ruben Godoy et al v. E.I. DuPont de Nemours et al., upheld a lower court’s decision dismissing the plaintiff’s strict liability and negligent defect causes of action for white lead carbonate. The decision in these cases, the new statutory law in Wisconsin, and our non-existent or diminutive market share, reinforces our belief that we have no liability in any of the eight Wisconsin cases, and accordingly, we have not recorded a loss contingency.
Other
Periodically, we enter into settlement discussions for lawsuits or claims for which we have meritorious defenses and for which an unfavorable outcome against us is not probable. In such instances, no loss contingency is recorded since a loss is not probable and it is our policy to expense defense costs as incurred. Typically, we consider these types of settlements in fairly limited circumstances usually related to the avoidance of future defense costs and/or the elimination of any risk of an unfavorable outcome. Such settlements, if any, are recorded when it is probable a liability has been incurred, typically upon entering into a settlement agreement.
While it is not feasible to predict the outcome of all pending environmental matters, lawsuits and claims, it is reasonably possible that there will be a necessity for future provisions for costs for environmental matters and for other contingent liabilities that we believe, will not have a material adverse effect on our consolidated financial position, but could be material to our consolidated results of operations or cash flows in any one accounting period. We cannot estimate any additional amount of loss or range of loss in excess of the recorded amounts. Moreover, many of these liabilities are paid over an extended period, and the timing of such payments cannot be predicted with any certainty.
From time to time, we are also included in legal proceedings as a plaintiff involving tax, contract, patent protection, environmental and other legal matters. Gain contingencies related to these matters, if any, are recorded when they are realized.
A further discussion of other contingencies can be found in Note 12 of Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements contained in our 2014 Annual Report on Form 10-K.
Commitments
We frequently enter into long-term contracts with customers with terms that vary depending on specific industry practices. Our business is not substantially dependent on any single contract or any series of related contracts. Descriptions of our significant sales contracts at December 31, 2014 are set forth in Note 12 of Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements contained in our 2014 Annual Report on Form 10-K.


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10. COMPREHENSIVE INCOME
The components of comprehensive income, which represents the change in equity from non-owner sources, for the three and six months ended June 30, 2015 and 2014 are as follows:
 
Three Months Ended 
 June 30,
 
Six Months Ended 
 June 30,
 
2015
 
2014
 
2015
 
2014
Net earnings
$
54.7

 
$
73.6

 
$
97.2

 
$
129.5

Other comprehensive (loss) income:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Accumulated pension liability, net of tax
(0.4
)
 
(0.5
)
 
(0.8
)
 
(0.9
)
Foreign currency translation adjustments
18.5

 
9.3

 
(37.6
)
 
3.4

Comprehensive income
$
72.8

 
$
82.4

 
$
58.8

 
$
132.0

The following tables present changes in accumulated other comprehensive income (“AOCI”) by component for the three and six months ended June 30, 2015 and 2014:
 
Three Months Ended June 30,
 
2015
 
2014
 
Accumulated Pension Liabilities
 
Cumulative Translation Adjustments
 
Total
 
Accumulated Pension Liabilities
 
Cumulative Translation Adjustments
 
Total
Balance, beginning of period
$
5.9

 
$
(49.3
)
 
$
(43.4
)
 
$
8.2

 
$
81.2

 
$
89.4

Other comprehensive income
before reclassifications

 
18.5

 
18.5

 

 
9.3

 
9.3

Amounts reclassified from AOCI
(0.4
)
 

 
(0.4
)
 
(0.5
)
 

 
(0.5
)
Net current period OCI
(0.4
)
 
18.5

 
18.1

 
(0.5
)
 
9.3

 
8.8

Balance, end of period
$
5.5

 
$
(30.8
)
 
$
(25.3
)
 
$
7.7

 
$
90.5

 
$
98.2

 
Six Months Ended June 30,
 
2015
 
2014
 
Accumulated Pension Liabilities
 
Cumulative Translation Adjustments
 
Total
 
Accumulated Pension Liabilities
 
Cumulative Translation Adjustments
 
Total
Balance, beginning of period
$
6.3

 
$
6.8

 
$
13.1

 
$
8.6

 
$
87.1

 
$
95.7

Other comprehensive income
before reclassifications

 
(37.6
)
 
(37.6
)
 

 
3.4

 
3.4

Amounts reclassified from AOCI
(0.8
)
 

 
(0.8
)
 
(0.9
)
 

 
(0.9
)
Net current period OCI
(0.8
)
 
(37.6
)
 
(38.4
)
 
(0.9
)
 
3.4

 
2.5

Balance, end of period
$
5.5

 
$
(30.8
)
 
$
(25.3
)
 
$
7.7

 
$
90.5

 
$
98.2


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The following table presents a summary of reclassification adjustments out of AOCI for the three and six months ended June 30, 2015 and 2014:
 
Three Months Ended June 30,
 
Six Months Ended June 30,
Affected line item in the Consolidated Statements of Income
Details of AOCI component
2015
 
2014
 
2015
 
2014
Pension related adjustments:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Amortization of prior service costs (credits)
$
(0.7
)
 
$
(0.7
)
 
$
(1.3
)
 
$
(1.4
)
(1) 
 
(0.7
)
 
(0.7
)
 
(1.3
)
 
(1.4
)
Total before tax
 
0.3

 
0.2

 
0.5

 
0.5

Tax expense
Total pension reclassifications
$
(0.4
)
 
$
(0.5
)
 
$
(0.8
)
 
$
(0.9
)
Net of tax
__________________
(1)
These AOCI components are included in the computation of net periodic pension cost, and allocated to various line items on the consolidated statements of income, primarily manufacturing cost of sales. See Note 16 - Employee Benefit Plans for additional information on net periodic pension cost.

11. INCOME TAXES
The effective tax rate for continuing operations for the three and six months ended June 30, 2015 was a tax provision of 29.6%, or $23.6, and 28.0%, or $38.4, respectively, compared to a tax provision of 30.9%, or $28.0, and 27.9%, or $45.8, respectively for the three and six months ended June 30, 2014. The effective tax rate for the three months ended June 30, 2015 was favorably impacted primarily by earnings in lower tax jurisdictions. The effective tax rate for the six months ended June 30, 2015 was also favorably impacted by a net tax benefit of $1.7 attributable to $2.4 of tax reserve adjustments and changes in tax rates for U.S. and certain international operations, both of which were partially offset by $0.7 of valuation allowance changes.
As of June 30, 2015, the amount of gross unrecognized tax benefits for continuing operations is $9.1 (excluding interest) of which $8.7 would impact our effective tax rate, if recognized. The amount of gross unrecognized tax benefits at December 31, 2014 for continuing operations was $10.0, excluding interest, of which $9.6 would impact our effective tax rate, if recognized.
We recognize interest and penalties related to unrecognized tax benefits in income tax expense in the consolidated statements of income. We had recorded a liability for the payment of interest and penalties (gross) for continuing operations, of approximately $1.2 as of December 31, 2014. Activity for the six months ended June 30, 2015 included a $0.1 increase for additional accruals which were offset by a $0.1 decrease due to settlements and foreign exchange, thus resulting in a liability for the payment of interest of $1.2 as of June 30, 2015.

12. OTHER FINANCIAL INFORMATION
Dividends
On April 16, 2015, the Board of Directors declared a $0.125 per common share cash dividend, payable on May 26, 2015 to shareholders of record as of May 11, 2015. Cash dividends paid in the second quarter of 2015 and 2014 were $8.9 and $4.4, respectively, and for the six months ended June 30, 2015 and 2014 were $17.8 and $8.9, respectively. On July 16, 2015, the Board of Directors declared a $0.125 per common share cash dividend, payable on August 25, 2015 to shareholders of record as of August 10, 2015.
Income taxes paid
Income taxes paid for the six months ended June 30, 2015 and 2014 were $41.7 and $45.6, respectively.
Interest
Interest paid for the six months ended June 30, 2015 and 2014 was $15.3 and $18.7, respectively. Interest income for the six months ended June 30, 2015 and 2014 was $0.4 and $0.3, respectively.


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13. SEGMENT INFORMATION
Summarized segment information for our four continuing segments for the three and six months ended June 30, 2015 and 2014 is as follows:
 
Three Months Ended 
 June 30,
 
Six Months Ended 
 June 30,
Net sales:
2015
 
2014
 
2015
 
2014
Aerospace Materials
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Sales to external customers
$
264.8

 
$
262.4

 
$
524.1

 
$
505.9

Intersegment sales

 
0.1

 

 
0.1

Industrial Materials
63.6

 
86.5

 
142.4

 
169.7

In Process Separation
109.6

 
103.9

 
216.9

 
200.0

Additive Technologies
70.2

 
74.3

 
139.8

 
140.6

Net sales from segments
508.2

 
527.2

 
$
1,023.2

 
$
1,016.3

Elimination of intersegment revenue

 
(0.1
)
 

 
(0.1
)
Total consolidated net sales
$
508.2

 
$
527.1

 
$
1,023.2

 
$
1,016.2

 
Three Months Ended 
 June 30,
 
Six Months Ended 
 June 30,
Earnings from operations:
2015
 
% of
Sales
 
2014
 
% of
Sales
 
2015
 
% of
Sales
 
2014
 
% of
Sales
Aerospace Materials
$
49.1

 
19
%
 
$
52.7

 
20
%
 
$
98.8

 
19
%
 
$
90.7

 
18
%
Industrial Materials
3.5

 
6
%
 
9.6

 
11
%
 
10.4

 
7
%
 
17.8

 
11
%
In Process Separation
32.5

 
30
%
 
28.5

 
27
%
 
61.3

 
28
%
 
47.7

 
24
%
Additive Technologies
9.6

 
14
%
 
10.4

 
14
%
 
18.7

 
13
%
 
18.3

 
13
%
Earnings from segments
94.7

 
19
%
 
101.2

 
19
%
 
$
189.2

 
18
%
 
$
174.5

 
17
%
Corporate and Unallocated, net (1)
(9.2
)
 

 
(7.7
)
 
 
 
(43.0
)
 

 
(3.6
)
 

Total earnings from operations
$
85.5

 
17
%
 
$
93.5

 
18
%
 
$
146.2

 
14
%
 
$
170.9

 
17
%
______________________
(1)
For the three and six months ended June 30, 2015, Corporate and Unallocated, net includes costs of $3.8 and $11.3, respectively, in connection with a lockout of employees at one of our plants, and restructuring charges of $0.1 and $3.7, respectively, and which are detailed further in Note 4. For the six months ended June 30, 2015, Corporate and Unallocated, net includes charges of $15.8 for net mark-to-market (“MTM”) adjustments of our pension and postretirement benefit plans representing the impact of inventory capitalization related to the fourth quarter 2014 MTM adjustment. For the three and six months ended June 30, 2014, Corporate and Unallocated, net includes restructuring charges of $0.3 and $0.4, respectively, related to prior year initiatives. For the six months ended June 30, 2014, it includes benefits of $6.2 for MTM adjustments of our pension and postretirement benefit plans representing the impact of inventory capitalization related to the fourth quarter 2013 MTM adjustment.

14. GOODWILL AND OTHER ACQUISITION INTANGIBLES
The following is the activity in the goodwill balances for each segment.
 
Aerospace
Materials
 
Industrial Materials
 
In Process Separation
 
Additive
Technologies
 
Total
Balance at December 31, 2014
$
233.7

 
$
182.2

 
$
65.1

 
$
27.8

 
$
508.8

2015 Activity:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Foreign currency translation adjustments
(0.5
)
 
(0.4
)
 
(0.6
)
 

 
(1.5
)
Balance at June 30, 2015
$
233.2

 
$
181.8

 
$
64.5

 
$
27.8

 
$
507.3


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Other acquisition intangibles consisted of the following major classes:
 
Weighted
Average
Useful
Life
(Years)
 
Gross
Carrying Value
 
Accumulated
Amortization
 
Net
Carrying Value
 
2015
 
June 30,
2015
 
December 31,
2014
 
June 30,
2015
 
December 31,
2014
 
June 30,
2015
 
December 31,
2014
Technology-based
14.4
 
$
47.3

 
$
47.3

 
$
(28.2
)
 
$
(26.6
)
 
$
19.1

 
$
20.7

Marketing-related
10.2
 
13.8

 
13.8

 
(8.1
)
 
(7.6
)
 
5.7

 
6.2

Customer-related
15.8
 
150.6

 
151.3

 
(41.2
)
 
(36.6
)
 
109.4

 
114.7

Total
 
 
$
211.7

 
$
212.4

 
$
(77.5
)
 
$
(70.8
)
 
$
134.2

 
$
141.6

Amortization of acquisition intangibles for the three months ended June 30, 2015 and 2014 was $3.5 and $3.7, respectively, and for the six months ended June 30, 2015 and 2014 was $6.9 and $7.3, respectively.
Assuming no change in the gross carrying amount of acquisition intangibles and the June 30, 2015 currency exchange rates remain constant, the estimated annual future amortization expense for 2015 and the next five years are as follows:
 
2015
 
2016
 
2017
 
2018
 
2019
 
2020
Intangibles amortization expense
$
13.9

 
$
13.8

 
$
12.3

 
$
10.9

 
$
10.0

 
$
9.5


15. DERIVATIVE FINANCIAL INSTRUMENTS AND CERTAIN HEDGING ACTIVITIES
Foreign Currency Derivative and Hedging Activities
Currency forward contracts
We periodically enter into currency forward contracts primarily to hedge currency fluctuations of transactions denominated in currencies other than the functional currency of the respective entity. At June 30, 2015, the principal transactions hedged involved accounts receivable and accounts payable. When hedging currency exposures, our practice is to economically hedge such exposures with forward contracts denominated in the same currency and with similar critical terms as the underlying exposure, and therefore, the instruments are effective at generating offsetting changes in the fair value, cash flows, or future earnings of the hedged item or transaction. The fair values of forward contracts are calculated each period. These forward contracts are not defined as hedging instruments and therefore, all changes in fair values are reported in Other expense, net.
At June 30, 2015, net contractual notional amounts of forward contracts outstanding translated into U.S. dollars (“USD”) totaled $252.3. Of this total, $176.7 was attributed to the exposure in forward selling/purchase of USD, and $75.6 was attributable to the exposure in forward selling/purchase of Euros translated into USD equivalent amounts. The net unfavorable fair values of currency contracts, based on forward exchange rates at June 30, 2015 and December 31, 2014 were $2.6 and $6.1, respectively.
Credit risk
At June 30, 2015, we did not have derivative instruments that contained credit-related-risk contingent features or provisions that would trigger immediate settlement or require us to post collateral to our counterparties. Also as of June 30, 2015, we did not have any significant concentration of credit risk arising from our derivative instruments.
The following table summarizes the impact of derivative instruments on our consolidated balance sheets:
 
Asset Derivatives
 
Liability Derivatives
 
June 30, 2015
 
December 31, 2014
 
June 30, 2015
 
December 31, 2014
Derivatives
not designated as hedging instruments:
Balance 
Sheet
Location
 
Fair
Value
 
Balance 
Sheet
Location
 
Fair
Value
 
Balance 
Sheet
Location
 
Fair
Value
 
Balance 
Sheet
Location
 
Fair
Value
Foreign currency forwards
Other
current assets
 
$
0.2

 
Other
current assets
 
$
0.6

 
Accrued
expenses
 
$
2.8

 
Accrued
expenses
 
$
6.7


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The following table summarizes the amount and location of gains or (losses) recognized in income for our derivatives not designated as hedges for the three and six months ended June 30, 2015 and 2014
 
Location of Gain or (Loss)
Recognized in Income
on Derivative
 
Amount of Gain or (Loss)
Recognized in Income
on Derivative
Derivatives not designated as
hedging instruments:
 
 
Three Months Ended June 30,
 
Six Months Ended 
 June 30,
 
 
2015
 
2014
 
2015
 
2014
Foreign currency forwards
Other expense, net
 
$
1.5

 
$
(3.0
)
 
$
(14.0
)
 
$
(3.7
)
Fair Value Measurements
We have certain assets and liabilities that are carried at fair value on a recurring basis in the financial statements, for which we determine the appropriate level in the fair value input hierarchy for each fair value measurement. The fair value hierarchy prioritizes the inputs, which refer broadly to assumptions market participants would use in pricing an asset or liability, into three levels. It gives the highest priority to quoted prices in active markets for identical assets or liabilities and the lowest priority to unobservable inputs. The level in the fair value hierarchy within which a fair value measurement in its entirety falls is determined based on the lowest level input that is significant to the fair value measurement in its entirety. Level 1 inputs are quoted prices (unadjusted) in active markets for identical assets or liabilities that the Company has the ability to access at the measurement date. Level 2 inputs are inputs other than quoted prices within Level 1 that are observable for the asset or liability, either directly or indirectly, such as quoted prices for similar assets or liabilities in active markets, interest rates, exchange rates, and yield curves observable at commonly quoted intervals. Level 3 inputs are unobservable inputs for the asset or liability.
All of our derivatives are valued based on Level 2 inputs. Our currency forwards are valued based on readily available published indices for commodity prices and currency exchange rates.
The net fair value of our foreign currency forward contracts, based on Level 2 inputs, at June 30, 2015 was approximately $2.6 unfavorable.
As of June 30, 2015, we did not have any non-financial assets and liabilities that are carried at fair value on a recurring basis in the consolidated financial statements or for which a fair value measurement was required for the six months ended June 30, 2015. Included among our non-financial assets and liabilities that are not required to be measured at fair value on a recurring basis are plant, equipment and facilities, goodwill, acquisition intangibles, and asset retirement obligations. For more information regarding our hedging activities and derivative financial instruments, refer to Note 7 of Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements contained in our 2014 Annual Report on Form 10-K.

16. EMPLOYEE BENEFIT PLANS
Net periodic (benefit) cost for our pension and postretirement benefit plans was as follows:
 
Pension Plans
 
Postretirement Plans
Three Months Ended June 30,
2015
 
2014
 
2015
 
2014
Service cost
$
0.5

 
$
0.9

 
$
0.3

 
$
0.2

Interest cost
8.4

 
11.0

 
1.9

 
2.0

Expected return on plan assets
(11.0
)
 
(12.8
)
 
(0.3
)
 
(0.4
)
Net amortization
0.1

 
0.1

 
(0.7
)
 
(0.7
)
Net periodic (benefit) cost
$
(2.0
)
 
$
(0.8
)
 
$
1.2

 
$
1.1

 
Pension Plans
 
Postretirement Plans
Six Months Ended June 30,
2015
 
2014
 
2015
 
2014
Service cost
$
1.0

 
$
1.8

 
$
0.6

 
$
0.4

Interest cost
16.7

 
21.9

 
3.9

 
4.0

Expected return on plan assets
(21.8
)
 
(25.6
)
 
(0.6
)
 
(0.7
)
Net amortization
0.1

 
0.1

 
(1.4
)
 
(1.5
)
Net periodic (benefit) cost
$
(4.0
)
 
$
(1.8
)
 
$
2.5

 
$
2.2


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We disclosed in our 2014 Annual Report on Form 10-K that we expected to contribute $4.9 and $10.2 in 2015 to our pension and postretirement plans, respectively. Through June 30, 2015, actual contributions to our continuing pension and postretirement plans were $3.0 and $4.3, respectively.
We also sponsor various defined contribution retirement plans in the United States and a number of other countries, consisting primarily of savings and profit growth sharing plans. Contributions to the savings plans are based in part on matching a percentage of employees’ contributions. Contributions to the profit growth sharing plans are generally based on our financial performance. Amounts expensed related to these plans for the three months ended June 30, 2015 and 2014 were $6.2 and $5.8, respectively, and for the six months ended June 30, 2015 and 2014 were $13.8 and $12.5, respectively.


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Item 2. MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
The following discussion and analysis should be read in conjunction with the Consolidated Financial Statements and Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements. Currency amounts are in millions, except per share amounts. Percentages are approximate.
GENERAL
Overview
We are a global specialty materials and chemicals company focused on developing, manufacturing and selling value-added products. Our products serve a diverse range of end markets including aerospace and industrial materials, mining, and plastics. Sales price and volume by region and the impact of exchange rates on our reporting segments are important measures that are analyzed by management and are provided in our segment analysis.
We report net sales in four geographic regions: North America, Latin America, Asia/Pacific, and Europe/Middle East/Africa. The destination of the sale determines the region under which it is reported, which is consistent with management’s view of the business. North America consists of the United States and Canada. Latin America includes Mexico, Central America, South America, and the Caribbean Islands. Asia/Pacific is comprised of Asia, Australia, and the islands of the South Pacific Rim.
Increasing selling volumes, geographic expansion, and new product introductions are important factors of our profitability. Selling price changes and raw material cost changes year on year are also important factors of our profitability especially in years of high volatility. See our Segment Results for discussion of the year-to-year impact of these important factors.
Segments
We have four reportable business segments: Aerospace Materials, Industrial Materials, In Process Separation, and Additive Technologies. The Aerospace Materials segment principally includes advanced composites, carbon fiber, and structural film adhesives. The Industrial Materials segment includes structural composite materials (high performance automotive, motorsports, recreation, tooling and other structural materials markets) and process materials (aerospace, wind energy, and other process materials markets). The In Process Separation segment includes mining chemicals and phosphine chemicals. The Additive Technologies segment includes polymer additives, specialty additives, and formulated resins. We regularly review our segment reporting and classifications and may periodically change our reportable segments to align with operational changes.
Discontinued operations
Coating Resins
On April 3, 2013, we completed the divestiture of our remaining Coatings business to Advent International (“Advent”), a global private equity firm. In connection with the sale of the business to Advent, we agreed to retain certain liabilities, including liabilities for U.S. pension and other postretirement benefits and certain tax liabilities related to taxable periods (or portions thereof) ending on or before April 3, 2013. For both the three and six months ended June 30, 2015, we recorded after-tax losses of $1.5 from the sale of Coatings, of which $0.1 related to the tax liabilities and $1.4 was for additional costs upon exiting a former Coatings facility. During the three and six months ended June 30, 2014, we recorded after-tax benefits of $0.5 and charges of $1.3, respectively, related to certain of these tax liabilities. Additionally, in the three and six months ended June 30, 2014, we recorded tax benefits of $10.6 and $11.1, respectively, based on our best estimate of the purchase price allocation attributable to the Coatings business sold in various taxing jurisdictions. For the six months ended June 30, 2014, we also incurred after-tax charges of approximately $2.3 for purchase price and working capital adjustments related to the sale. These after-tax losses and gains are included in Net (loss) gain on sale of discontinued operations, net of tax in the consolidated statements of income. The final price paid and loss on sale remains subject to final working capital and other customary adjustments.
As of June 30, 2015, the final working capital adjustment on the Coatings divestiture transaction is in dispute. We believe we will recover the net amount we have recorded with respect to the final working capital adjustment.
Other divestitures
Former Umeco entities divested prior to our acquisition
As part of our acquisition accounting for Umeco in 2012, we established reserves related to income tax and value added tax liabilities of an entity that had been divested by Umeco in 2011, for periods that were under audit prior to it its divestiture. We continued to accrue interest through the end of 2013. In the first quarter of 2014, we agreed to a settlement for audit periods

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through March 31, 2009, which resulted in a benefit of approximately $3.6. The benefit is included in Net (loss) gain on sale of discontinued operations, net of tax in the consolidated statement of income for the six months ended June 30, 2014.

Quarter Ended June 30, 2015, Compared With Quarter Ended June 30, 2014
Consolidated Results
Net sales for the three months ended June 30, 2015 were $508.2, down 4% compared with $527.1 for the three months ended June 30, 2014. Overall selling volumes were down 2%, and there was an unfavorable 2% impact ($10.1) of changes in exchange rates. Overall selling prices remained flat. Aerospace Materials’ net sales increased by 1%, which was due to price increases. Net sales for Industrial Materials segment decreased 26%, as volumes were down by 20% and the unfavorable impact from the changes in exchange rates decreased sales by 6%. In Process Separation’s net sales increased 6% due to higher sales volumes of 7%, offset by a 1% unfavorable impact in exchange rates. Net sales for Additive Technologies decreased 6% due to a 4% unfavorable impact in exchange rates and a 2% decrease in selling prices.
For a detailed discussion on revenues refer to the Segment Results section below.
Manufacturing cost of sales was $342.7, or 67.4% of net sales, in the second quarter of 2015, compared with $347.1, or 65.9% of net sales, in the second quarter of 2014. Total manufacturing costs decreased by $4.4, primarily due to a $13.6 favorable impact from changes in exchange rates, lower variable costs from lower volumes of $10.0, and net lower raw material costs of $1.1. These cost reductions were partly offset by $19.7 of higher overall plant operating costs, inflationary factors, capital project expenses, and freight and warehousing costs. This included $3.8 of costs in the second quarter of 2015 from the employee lockout at our manufacturing plant in Greenville, Texas. Although the lockout was settled in the first quarter of 2015, the last portion of the higher cost inventory that was produced during the lockout impacted cost of sales as that inventory was sold during the second quarter. Additionally, we had net unfavorable absorption of $0.4 and higher restructuring charges of $0.3 in 2015 compared to 2014.
Overall operating expenses (which include Selling and technical services, Research and process development, and Administrative and general expenses) decreased by $6.3 in the second quarter of 2015 compared to the second quarter of 2014. The decrease was due primarily to a $4.6 favorable impact from changes in exchange rates, lower employee benefit costs of $2.3, and lower restructuring costs of $0.4. The decrease was partially offset by $0.9 of higher costs associated with the continuing development and implementation of a single, global enterprise resource planning (“ERP”) system.
Amortization of acquisition intangibles was $3.5 in the second quarter of 2015 compared to $3.7 in the second quarter of 2014.
Other expense, net was $1.8 in the second quarter of 2015, compared to $0 in the second quarter of 2014. The second quarter of 2015 includes charges of $1.5 related to additional environmental remediation requirements at certain inactive sites in the U.S.
Interest expense, net was $3.9 in the second quarter of 2015 compared with $3.0 in the prior year. The increase of $0.9 is primarily due to lower capitalized interest of $2.5 related to the completion of several of our major capital projects in our growth product lines in 2014, partly offset by lower interest expense of $1.5, mostly from the redemption of higher interest debt in the fourth quarter of 2014 and replacement with new debt issued at a lower rate, and higher interest income of $0.1.
The effective tax rate for continuing operations for the three months ended June 30, 2015 was a tax provision of 29.6%, or $23.6, compared to a tax provision of 30.9%, or $28.0, for the three months ended June 30, 2014. The effective tax rate for the three months ended June 30, 2015 was favorably impacted primarily by earnings in lower tax jurisdictions.
Earnings from continuing operations for the second quarter of 2015 were $56.2 ($0.77 per diluted share), a decrease of $6.3 from $62.5 ($0.85 per diluted share) reported for the same period in 2014. Included in the second quarter of 2015 were after-tax charges of $2.4 ($0.03 per diluted share) related to expenses incurred related to the lockout of employees at one of our manufacturing plants, after-tax charges of $0.9 ($0.01 per diluted share) related to environmental costs incurred at inactive sites during the quarter, and after-tax charges of $0.1 ($0.00 per diluted share) of restructuring charges primarily related to previous restructuring initiatives. Included in the second quarter of 2014 were after-tax charges of $0.2 ($0.00 per diluted share) related to adjustments to previous restructuring initiatives.
(Loss) earnings from discontinued operations, net of tax, was a loss of $1.5 in the second quarter of 2015 compared with earnings of $11.1 in 2014. For 2015, (Loss) earnings from discontinued operations, net of tax consist of after-tax losses of $1.5 related to the sale of Coatings, of which $0.1 was related to adjustments of certain tax liabilities of the Coatings business that we retained related to taxable periods (or portions thereof) ending on or before April 3, 2013 and $1.4 of additional costs of exiting a former Coatings facility. For 2014, it consists of after-tax earnings of $0.5 related to the tax liabilities and a tax benefit

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of $10.6 based on our best estimate of the purchase price allocation attributable to the Coatings business sold in various taxing jurisdictions.
Net earnings for the second quarter of 2015 were $54.7 ($0.75 per diluted share), a decrease of $18.9 from the net earnings of $73.6 ($1.00 per diluted share) in the same period in 2014.
Segment Results
Year-to-year comparisons and analysis of changes in net sales by segment and region during the quarter are set forth below.
Aerospace Materials
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
% Change Due to
 
2015
 
2014
 
Total % 
Change
 
Price
 
Volume/Mix
 
Currency
North America
$
169.4

 
$
163.6

 
4
 %
 
2
 %
 
2
 %
 
 %
Latin America (1)
1.9

 
2.5

 

 

 

 

Asia/Pacific
22.9

 
17.8

 
29
 %
 
1
 %
 
28
 %
 
 %
Europe/Middle East/Africa
70.6

 
78.5

 
(10
)%
 
(1
)%
 
(8
)%
 
(1
)%
Total
$
264.8

 
$
262.4

 
1
 %
 
1
 %
 
 %
 
 %
(1)
Due to the low level of sales in this geographic region, percentage comparisons are not meaningful.
Net sales increased 1% primarily due to increases in selling prices. Selling volumes in the second quarter of 2015 were flat, as increased volumes in certain defense sectors were offset by lower demand from the civilian rotorcraft market and lower sales in the large commercial aircraft market due to build rate reductions on certain legacy programs and timing of new program ramp up. Changes in exchange rates did not significantly impact net sales.
Earnings from operations were $49.1, or 19% of net sales in 2015, compared with $52.7, or 20% of net sales in 2014. The $3.6 decrease in earnings was due to $7.9 of higher period costs in 2015 due to increased expenses related to our ongoing capital projects and inflationary factors, unfavorable absorption of $5.9 due mostly to inventory reduction, and $0.7 of higher operating expenses. These higher costs were partly offset by the favorable net impact from changes in exchange rates of $4.6, improved marginal income due to favorable sales mix of $3.8, and increased selling prices of $2.4.
Industrial Materials 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
% Change Due to
 
2015
 
2014
 
Total % 
Change
 
Price
 
Volume/Mix
 
Currency
North America
$
23.2

 
$
29.6

 
(22
)%
 
1
%
 
(23
)%
 
 %
Latin America (1)
0.3

 
4.0

 
 %
 
%
 
 %
 
 %
Asia/Pacific (1)
5.1

 
2.8

 
 %
 
%
 
 %
 
 %
Europe/Middle East/Africa
35.0

 
50.1

 
(30
)%
 
%
 
(20
)%
 
(10
)%
Total
$
63.6

 
$
86.5

 
(26
)%
 
%
 
(20
)%
 
(6
)%
(1)
Due to the low level of sales in this geographic region, percentage comparisons are not meaningful.
Net sales were down 26% compared to the second quarter of 2014. Selling volumes decreased 20%, driven primarily by lower demand in the aerospace tooling, high performance automotive, and process materials aerospace and wind markets. Net sales were down 6% from the unfavorable impact of changes in exchange rates, mostly in Europe, as the U.S. dollar strengthened significantly against the Euro year over year. Additionally, selling prices were flat.
Earnings from operations were $3.5, or 6% of net sales in 2015, compared with $9.6, or 11% of net sales in 2014. Earnings decreased by $6.1 due to lower selling volumes of $7.6, increased manufacturing and freight expenses of approximately $2.5 from increased labor and benefit costs, and higher raw material costs of $1.0. These higher costs were partially offset by favorable absorption of $3.6, lower operating expenses of $0.8, and higher selling prices of $0.4. The favorable net impact from changes in exchange rates was $0.3.

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Table of Contents

In Process Separation 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
% Change Due to
 
2015
 
2014
 
Total % 
Change
 
Price
 
Volume/Mix
 
Currency
North America
$
33.6

 
$
31.0

 
8
 %
 
 %
 
8
%
 
 %
Latin America
28.0

 
28.3

 
(1
)%
 
(1
)%
 
%
 
 %
Asia/Pacific
24.8

 
21.9

 
13
 %
 
(2
)%
 
19
%
 
(4
)%
Europe/Middle East/Africa
23.2

 
22.7

 
2
 %
 
1
 %
 
2
%
 
(1
)%
Total
$
109.6

 
$
103.9

 
6
 %
 
 %
 
7
%
 
(1
)%
Net sales increased 6%, due to higher sales volumes of 7%. The volume increase in 2015 is primarily from strong demand in our mineral processing product line and phosphine product lines, partly offset by lower demand in our metal extraction product line compared to the second quarter of 2014. Selling prices were flat. Changes in foreign exchange rates were unfavorable by 1%.
Earnings from operations were $32.5, or 30% of net sales in 2015, compared with $28.5, or 27% of net sales in 2014. The $4.0 increase in earnings is principally due to improved marginal income due to higher selling volumes of $4.6, a $3.3 favorable net impact from changes in exchange rates, $2.1 of lower raw material costs, and favorable net absorption of $0.9 from higher volumes for increased future demand. These increases were mostly offset by higher manufacturing costs of $5.3 due to higher overall plant operating costs, which included higher depreciation related to the startup of manufacturing plants in Canada and India, and higher freight for increased demand. Additionally, there were higher operating expenses of $1.0 for inflationary factors and to support continued growth, and lower selling prices of $0.6.
Additive Technologies
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
% Change Due to
 
2015
 
2014
 
Total % 
Change
 
Price
 
Volume/Mix
 
Currency
North America
$
27.7

 
$
30.0

 
(8
)%
 
(1
)%
 
(7
)%
 
 %
Latin America
6.1

 
6.6

 
(8
)%
 
(2
)%
 
(6
)%
 
 %
Asia/Pacific
19.4

 
17.7

 
10
 %
 
(4
)%
 
16
 %
 
(2
)%
Europe/Middle East/Africa
17.0

 
20.0

 
(15
)%
 
(2
)%
 
1
 %
 
(14
)%
Total
$
70.2

 
$